Rémy Viredaz

General index


Indo-Aryan, Nuristani, Iranian





Lithuanian, Latvian, Old Prussian



Caucasian languages

General linguistics



Vedic Sanskrit

híraṇya- ‘gold’: what morphology? *g1hlh3-en- + *-yo-? 2009b: 11 and fn. 47.

Late Sanskrit

āṣādhīya- ‘of āṣāḍha- month (June/July)’: the meaning ‘apricot’ is a Dardic innovation: 2009b: 13 fn. 61.

cīḍā- ‘turpentine tree’: see Other Old Indo-Aryan.

Other Old Indo-Aryan

especially OIA prototypes in Turner’s dictionary when not attested in Sanskrit

cīḍa-, *cīda-, *cīlā-, cillā-, etc. (Turner 4837: various tree names): perhaps members of an expressive word family for ‘sticky, oily, thick’, ‘gummy matter’, etc., and *‘exuding resin’, *‘exuding gum’. 2009b: 13-14.

Modern Indo-Aryan

Intervocalic ṭ, ḍ > in most languages, r in some of them: 2009b: 14 fn. 69.


hāṛhī ‘apricot’: from Dardic substratum. 2009b: 13.


Bhadrawahi loans from Kashmiri: 2009b: 12 fn. 55.

Dardic Languages

‘apricot’: 2009b: 11-16.



‘apricot’: 2009b: 11-16.



Common Iranian

*dzaranya- ‘gold’: see Vedic híraṇya-.

Modern Eastern Iranian Languages

‘apricot’: 2009b: 11-16.



persica: the coupled designation of ‘peach’ as ‘Persian fruit’ and ‘apricot’ as ‘Armenian fruit’ in Greek and Latin is probably a calque from Parthian (whose empire was located between Persia and Armenia). 2009b: 8 fn. 33.

porrō ‘further, onwards’: not inherited from IE, but borrowed from dialectal (Euboean) Greek πόρρω < πόρσω, since the latter is best explained from πρόσω < *protyō (Chantraine, DELG, s. v.).



Gothic fairra, English far: from IE *pérrē < *pérh2-eh1 ‘beyond’, instrumental singular of *pérh2-o- (adj.) ‘situated beyond’. (Slight modification of García Ramón’s etymology.) 2009b: 20 fn. 89-90.

Gemination in some adverbs of movement: perhaps by analogy of inn, where it may have been a means of giving the word more weight. 2009b: 21 fn. 92.

Have there been contacts between the Germanic and Armenian dialects of Indo-European? 2009b: 21.


Caucasian languages


č’erami წერამი ‘apricot’: from a dialectal variant *čeran of Armenian ciran ‘apricot’; m after aṭami ატამი ‘peach’. 2009b: 10.


General linguistics


Derived adjective, substantivized, substituting its base-noun (as in Latin diurnum, fāgeus > Italian giorno ‘day’, faggio ‘beech’): 2009b: 1-2, 12 n. 54.

Name of tree used as name of fruit: 2009b: 15-16.

Réalisation : BBup